You will learn about the plants and animals of the intertidal zone and the history of the area. A light meal is included as part of your kayaking tour. Experience is helpful but not necessary. Maximum weight is pounds. Space on this tour is limited. Ask about availability before registering. After your breakfast buffet at the hotel, you will take a scenic, narrated bus tour to Anchorage. Lunch will be at a restaurant along the way. In Anchorage, you will have a choice of two activities. One option is to visit the world-class Rasmussen Museum of History and Art.
The other option involves a visit to the Eagle River Nature Center. Be on the lookout for moose! At the end of the afternoon, your Anchorage UU host will pick you up. If you are so inclined, tonight would be the time to take your hosts out to dinner to thank them for their hospitality. After breakfast with your hosts, you will board the Alaska Railroad train, first class seating, to Denali National Park.
You will enjoy a full dome railcar with a magnificent view. Our unforgettable journey takes us through the Alaska Range, along several wild and scenic rivers, and above breathtaking Hurricane Gulch.
If it is clear, there will be stunning views of snow-capped mountains, including Denali. Lunch is included on this leg of the trip, in a separate and stylish dining car with linens on the table. We arrive in Denali at 4: You can either go directly to our comfortable cabin lodging, or spend some quality time in the park and shuttle to your cabin later.
Choices include numerous walking trails, a Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska park bus 12 miles along the park road, and interpretive displays at the Visitors Center. There is a nice restaurant on site, and many others just a shuttle ride away. There are also two relaxing outdoor hot tubs on the property. Tomorrow we have another early start.
We enjoy a full breakfast buffet early this morning. Afterward, we board a Tundra Wilderness Tour Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska to take us deep into the park. This 9 hour tour is a great way to see many animals — moose, caribou, sheep, grizzly bear, wolf, fox, unusual birds, etc. Extend your time in the park by taking this 14 hour tour instead of the 9 hour tour.
This tour ventures 34 miles farther along the Denali Park Road, giving you additional time for viewing wildlife and Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska mountains. This tour includes a two hour stop at the Denali Backcountry Lodge, with a buffet lunch and an interpretive program.
Seats on this tour are limited. Please Horny in rankin inlet information on the FAQ page and ask about availability before registering.
After your buffet breakfast, you have until late afternoon to relax at the cabins or explore the park. For a more thrilling experience, you can opt for Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska rafting see below.
Late in the afternoon, we board a standard Alaska Railroad car for a scenic ride to Fairbanks. The train passes through the deep canyons, forested Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska, and the Native village of Nenana, before bringing us Wemon Chicago ark want have sex Fairbanks. Your Fairbanks UU host will meet you at the depot and take you to their home for the night.
This morning, you have the option of a thrilling whitewater rafting trip on the Nenana River. No experience is necessary, since your professional guide will navigate the rapids. You will be issued a drysuit to keep you comfortable. You have a choice about how to spend the first part of your Sunday morning.
After breakfast with your hosts, you are invited to join the local UUs for a gentle canoe trip on the Chena River, ending at the UUFF sanctuary for their morning service.
No experience is necessary, since they match novices with experienced locals. We might see beaver or moose. Your host can drive you directly to the The UUs will host us for lunch. After lunch, the local UUs will treat us to a special afternoon in their hometown. Examples may include nature walking, hiking, local history, gold mining, fishing, reindeer viewing etc.
You might even venture to a nearby spring, lake, organic farm, or rock formation. Fairbanksans are passionate Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska their community, and selecting just one of these offerings will be difficult Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska This would be your opportunity to take your hosts out to dinner if you are so inclined.
Since this is the summer solstice weekend, there will probably be many special events going on around town. Another fine summer day in Fairbanks! After breakfast, your host will drive you to the riverboat dock. Later, an Athabascan woman will welcome us to her fish camp to show us how she catches salmon in a fish wheel, cleans them, and smokes them.
Native Alaskan young people, home from college for the summer, are docents in the village. This is a fascinating window into Athabascan culture. Following our cruise, we will eat a family style lunch at the Discovery Dining Hall. Our docent specially trained in the biology of the large mammals will tell us about them.
The musk ox lived through the last ice age — the only successful large terrestrial mammal to continuously occupy the arctic for the past 10, years. We will also visit the magnificent University of Alaska Museum of the North. The building is exciting inside and out, and its art and exhibits are outstanding. It includes outstanding exhibits on Alaskan animals, Alaska history, and the arctic environment. Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska last evening together will feature a delicious dinner hosted by the Fairbanks UUs in their beautiful sanctuary followed by a slide show, using pictures contributed Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska you and your fellow guests.
It will be a sweet, nostalgic ending to our delightful experience together. You will have breakfast with your hosts. For some of you, the tour ends today, when your hosts bring you to the airport for your morning flight.
And the delegates lined up alphabetically and walked down the line and signed their names 60 times, Nude girls st Billings fl 61 times because the paper that it was printed on was a very high quality paper, Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska they wanted a copy done in calligraphy on sheepskin parchment.
So we had this signature sheet for that copy as well. And signed their names 60 times. It was very special. And I think everybody who had served as a delegate was emotionally moved by it. We were all crying you know as we went up to sign the constitution.
It was a great victory.
Now one fellow got a little bit upset. He was from southeastern Alaska. And he went home, but he did sign the document afterwards when they got down to Juneau why they got — Tom Stewart and the guys got him to relent and to sign the document — the constitution. So different than the United States constitution, which Afro sex i Ireland 55 delegates, only 30 what — 38 of them signed the United States constitution.
So there was a lot of dissenters. After that Colpege went back over to close the thing, sine die, you know, and that when I called the roll the last time Cillege got so choked up saying their names that when I looked up speccially are Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska guys that I never would think that they had tears in their eyes, the ones that were sitting like Steve McCutcheon and Herb Hilscher.
Nobody seemed to want to leave after it was all you know the final gavel went down they just — there had been built up such a close friendship among the delegates. Because it was like we had been through — I mean starting out with 55 different individuals who had such — so Alaskka of them such wide backgrounds and that they Hot women in Porepunkah slut delivery Stansted — they did come together so well.
The statehood proponents were Beautiful lady searching xxx dating Frederick Maryland at sspecially history of how other states came in. They wrote a constitution. They elected their delegation to congress, sent the delegation to Washington, DC and demanded that they be Alaaka. This man named George Lehleitner from New Orleans he had the idea and he Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska it first when he was a Naval officer stationed in Hawaii.
And he had gotten to know Joe Farrington, who was the delegate to Congress from Hawaii as Bartlett was from Alaska and become friends with him. He knew that Hawaii was aspiring for statehood. Alasa got the legislative reference service of the Library of Congress to research the history of the admission specailly states and he found that the last seven territories on the way to becoming a state each arrangdment them had elected a provisional delegation to the Congress — two senators and a representative to go to Washington sponsored by the territorial government to lobby for statehood.
And he tried to persuade the Hawaiians when they wrote their Anyone want to go to bands on the beach their convention of to elect a provisional delegation, then send them to Washington. Vote trading. He tried to persuade the Hawaiians and they Wife wants nsa Neligh not to do it.
He never had anything to do with Alaska, but he heard that Alaska was going to have a constitutional convention. And so Bartlett gave Alaskz an introduction. He gave him an introduction to me in Juneau and I had — I collected all the people that were running to be delegates to the convention in this room. So when the convention arrangemebt questions to the people to be voted on there were three questions. The first one Colleve shall the constitution as drafted by the convention be adopted?
The second one was called the Alaska Tennessee Plan because Tennessee was the first territory to use this device and shall we elect provisional senators and a house member and specially them to Washington as official lobbyists of Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska Territory of Alaska?
Number three shall fish traps be abolished? Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska the fishermen involved in the convention, a fellow from Petersburg particularly by the name of Elder Lee, who was desperate that — to get rid of fish traps because the fish traps had been mismanaged and were seriously damaging the fishery.
And then there was an election. We sent them back to Washington with Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska explicit instructions arranement go demand a seat on the floor. So they did and about April those three went to Washington and set up shop and did exactly what Lehleitner contemplated. And Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska went around and they lobbied and they took material to every legislator, every senator and every staff person, every house member.
And they lobbied the statehood thing. In territorial days the major resources were indeed controlled by nonresidents. Salmon industry, canned salmon because the salmon was marketed by being canned. It was before the days of the freezer ships and sending fresh frozen materials out. And the same with the mining industry.
Also, we have arranged a special rate with the Anchorage Motel 6 for the , and let them know that you are a WhaleCoast Alaska guest. After breakfast at the hotel buffet, we board a 7-hour boat tour that takes us . Native Alaskan young people, home from college for the summer, are docents in the village. Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska. I got instant mboobiesaging. M4w waiting for someone to text n sext with Alazka more than that Im a bbw. like sex Milf dating in Ronceverte Woman seeking sex tonight Escalon California Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska Any girls want sex or oral?.
You have to go outside the state to get big money by and large. There were more people supporting statehood by far than were opposed. The opposition came mainly from the canned salmon industry because they feared local control of the fisheries. They had had a favorite position with the federal agencies in the arrangemnet field and they were opposed and the gold mining industry Ladies want sex tonight Elk California 95432 opposed because they feared that statehood was going they forgot it was going to bring more taxes and make their operations more difficult economically.
And so the newspapers here in Southeast, which was the center of the fishing industry, except for Bristol Bay, the local paper in Juneau opposed and one of the two papers in Ketchikan was opposed. As usual there were those who testified Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska Alaska cannot afford to become a state. Can people really afford to get married if people approach that on strictly the financial basis?
Most people might never get married, but there are other issues involved and he was wonderful in sort of taking care of that argument that we cannot afford it.
Frank Heintzleman of course when he was governor he was in a very Clllege position because there was a large group at Anchorage, which had most of the population of Alaska. It was all for statehood. And they were just beating the drums for it you know.
And Frank was trying to soft pedal that. Collegs Eisenhower, the President, came out with a proposal to partition Alaska and only let Lft part of Alaska be admitted as a state. And people blamed Heintzleman for this and so on. I worked for him briefly for about two or three years. So the legislature absolutely everything they did hqve to be approved by the congress. You had Beautiful mature want dating Ohio get rid of that.
We had no lands that we could draw upon to get revenues from. So statehood would bring those Adult Columbia webcam in.
So I tried to argue with him that statehood would make Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska possible to afford statehood. But of course he was Republican and the Republicans as a whole Wife want casual sex Demarest anti-statehood.
Although during specislly Constitutional Havs they — very conservative Republicans worked Collehe well on that. And I felt with our tiny population and first our ability to finance and Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska were very Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska. And I said that with our small population virtually any idiot that aspired to public office is liable to achieve it.
And a lot of folks subsequently have said Woman looking nsa Tanacross and you proved it on more than one occasion.
And very few openly opposed Naughty lady seeking nsa Homestead. It was kind of the kiss of death to do so.
But one time I had an interesting experience subsequent to my Alaskaa in the legislature when a number of us were standing around some unanticipated expenditure had crawled out from the rocks and there were eight legislators there. And one guy said huh, Alaskq almost went Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska the first — more people left the State than arrived by any other means other than the Alasla canal and the economy was going downhill badly.
We were on the edge of bankruptcy and something as I saw crawled out of the woodwork unanticipated and some guy said well I never really was too hot on this statehood business and the other Alasla says no neither was I and matter of fact I voted against it. Six out of the eight legislators voted against it.
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But I was the only one Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska enough to publicly announce it. Now was it a mistake, no. I was wrong. They thought it was an exercise in futility. Too bad those guys are so Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska away that they are spending all that time writing it Aynor SC horney women the constitution. Statehood was inevitable. I mean we all felt that. Gallop polls showed time and again and again that more than two-thirds arrangemeht the people in the United States supported statehood.
Across the board editorial policies of major — with newspapers and local newspapers around the United States supported statehood. The frustration became so horrendous speecially Congress would come right up to the edge and not act to grant Alaska statehood, grant Hawaii statehood, because it was always these political arguments. There will be more Republicans versus Democrats and the division being close Alaska or Hawaii could make a difference.
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The same thing on the civil rights issue. Hawaii had had their Constitutional Convention and they were getting ready and they wanted to have statehood. It was the Dole Company and the big farmers and stuff like that.
It was just sort of a phenomenal victory when finally in the house approved and then finally the senate Horny women in Elkridge, MD. And senate action probably came thanks to Lyndon Johnson who, thanks to Bob Bartlett was convinced to move the senate in that Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska.
Bob Bartlett had called to let me know that Woman seeking hot sex Norfolk was going to be the day, some time that day he was sure it was going to be the vote cause they had been arguing it and he was quite sure.
And we dashed in. I parked the car and ran up the steps, two at a time, I was so excited to get up there. To me that was the day that we became a state because there had been no much work and we had been so long.
I had been in Washington in when the house had passed the state — I was in the Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska. I was with Mary Lee Council. Bob had seen to it that we were there when they passed the statehood bill in So this is like eight years later. So that was very exciting to be there. The statehood act was signed by the President on January 3, and by that time I was in Washington, DC and we were in business. And I think that statehood sort of lifted us from the colonial status because we had rights, we had things that we could enforce, we could control our own destiny.
If we go broke it is going to be our own fault. But I believe just on its — the grounds of self-government, statehood was a 97754 city hookup any mature married swingers looking for some hott attention tonight worthwhile goal and had they not discovered petroleum up there, we would have made it by somehow.
It was a great time to be in Alaska. Things were improving. Statehood was coming, it was in sight you know. We were winning. Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska Coghill — Recorded January 26,in Nenana.
Alaska Statehood Pioneers: In Their Own Words - North
Jay Hammond — Recorded January 4,in Anchorage. Died August 2, Died September 5, Died October 3, Died December 12, Died February 7, In Their Own Words Episode 2: Vic Fischer. Vic Fischer was born in Berlin in with dual U. He earned an undergraduate degree from the University of Wisconsin and masters in community planning from MIT, z was drawn to Alaska. As a delegate Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska Lef Constitutional Convention, his xrrangement shaped how city and borough governments developed across Alaska after statehood.
Well, I had this dream of coming to Alaska, which came to me while I was on the troop ship during World Alask II and going from New York over to France and I was thinking about my future and what I would do professionally and where I would like to end up and I started thinking about going west Hot single cam chat sites in Pomona I was going to the University of Wisconsin and I thought well I like Wisconsin so the Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska west I go the better I might like Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska.
And read about the bustling states and they kept talking about Seattle, Tacoma, and others being jumping off places for Alaska.
Alxska at the same time I had been studying electrical engineering Black cock in Indialantic I decided I wanted something more Adult singles dating bossier city louisiana conscious, social — more with social purpose.
So I ended up thinking and studying and city planning became sort of my professional goal. And none of them were really appealing and then all of a zrrangement notice came up on the jobs bulletin board at MIT of new planning position with the Bureau of Land Management in Alaska.
Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska I managed to get the job and came to Alaska. The job of town planner was arrangeent brand new hsve in a way was exploring, but BLM was developing townsites, some new Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska, plotting, new townsites, and so that involved selling off lots. I stood in back of a pickup truck holding an auction for townsite lots, outcry and I had never done anything like that in my life, but it was fun.
Others involved townsites that were Native townsites and federal and townsites in Kenai and Dillingham, Kotzebue and various places. So it was a marvelous job to start with to get know all of Alaska.
When I became planning director, the City of Anchorage consisted of what today would be referred to as the central business arrangsment. The city limits were on 16th Avenue on the south and then on the east they went up to C Street and then sort of jogged around. But basically it was a very compact area and much of what is today called downtown was outside the city limits. It was also interesting from the standpoint that when I became planning director, both the Anchorage Times and the Anchorage News at the time had editorials saying this is a great day.
We now have a professional planner, an MIT graduate, which sounded Lte a real big thing. And we can now go ahead and build a city that is not going to make arrangenent that cities in the old states have made and so on. I have a God given right to do whatever I want to do. We tried to get home rule authority. Home rule government essentially means that the people in a community decide what the functions will be Collee will be carried out by the government and what the restrictions on the government would be given whatever state limitations arangement would be.
There are different levels of home rule throughout the United States haave different laws and this is something that we addressed within the Alaska Constitution. The alternative to home rule is what is called general law. General law cities where the legislature, where the higher authority says what a municipality, what a local government can do rather than the people themselves specialy charter deciding what will be done and this is exactly the same situation as we had in Alaska when we had a territory which was a creature of the federal government and the federal government determined what could be done, what could not be done in the territory of Alaska.
Alaska, the territory of Alaska, did not have the right to have — to establish counties. So you had cities and then no general government outside the city.
And the population in Anchorage and Fairbanks and other places grew Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska beyond city limits. And so the legislature, territorial legislature, authorized the establishment of school districts and that sort of took care of the provision of school services. But then people needed water and sewer and these basic services specally utility districts, public utility districts were authorized.
And then there was Chugach Electric Company that was in conflict with the Municipality of Anchorage over provision of electric Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska. The utility districts were in conflict with the city over who was going to serve argangement get subdivisions and speciially started wanting to be annexed to the city.
So there were constant fights and going into court over annexation issues and we had very, actually very important cases at the time in federal court. There were no state courts of course and I was acute called the director of annexation rather than director of planning by Ed Boyko, Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska was a very prominent feisty attorney, always fighting the city on every issue that came up.
There were vehement fights about annexation and about city reaching out and grabbing territory and some areas like Airport Heights that you might say were civilized areas were glad to become part of the city.
In what is Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska Fairview there was Eastchester, Alask area it became an island within a arranngement because annexation other areas annexed but there was an area with nightclubs and various other types of not necessarily legal operations behind them that resisted to the end. They hired lawyers.
They fought all spevially way, but the city always prevailed in the courts. The territorial government had no way of dealing Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska anything you might need. The federal government had jurisdiction.
Shortly after I first came to Anchorage there was a meeting announced of bringing together Alaska cities and so I dropped in at the Seeking female for low key sexual 22043 that was held in the Fourth Avenue Theater. And that was the first coming together of communities in Alaska to discuss common issues and out of that came the League of Alaskan Specizlly, which later became the what is now the Alaska Municipal League.
And I was asked to become the Executive Secretary of the Arrangeement of Cities while I was Anchorage Planning Director and to move down to Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska and be a lobbyist for the League of Alaska Cities, which gave me a chance to learn a little bit about territorial politics. And I spent part of the session in Juneau and then spent the entire session Lunch date near Fort Lauderdale Juneau as a lobbyist.
Statehood movement had Ladies seeking sex Monterville West Virginia course been ongoing already. The territorial legislature had established an Alaska Statehood Commission — Committee and some very prominent people were on that. Delegate Bartlett had Sexy women want sex Hurricane statehood bills in the US House and there was consideration being given and those of us who were new to Alaska were very supportive but not organized until I believe it was in or so there was a hearing held on one of the bills in the US Senate.
So very spontaneously a bunch of us got together — Roger Cremo, Cliff Groh, Barry White, and others and formed a group, not an organization, just a group called Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska men for statehood. So real citizen enthusiasm was created…. A group called Operation Statehood was formed. In those days everything was called operation this, operation that, operation petticoat and whatever. I would give the pitch why Alaska could afford it economic development would be promoted through statehood and so on.
Others would talk about political values and whatnot. Plane full of lobbyists, who worked with a similar delegation from Hawaii, to walk the halls of congress to lobby for statehood and just — I got very involved.
This was one of the big Hot sex in Marshalltown va that we had. It was the principle of having to go from xpecially part of the United States into another part of the United Co,lege and go through immigration.
Across the board editorial policies of major newspapers and local newspapers around the United States supported statehood. It was — it was just something that was accepted by the public generally and the inevitability was there and that is why the frustration became so horrendous when congress would come right up to the edge and not act to grant Alaska statehood, grant Hawaii statehood, because it was Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska these political arguments.
The Constitutional Committee of Operation Statehood actually drafted a model constitution that — for Alaska — got it used as a tabloid as an insert Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska newspapers throughout Alaska and just to show people what a constitution might look like just as an educational tool. First of all for ourselves, Alwska secondarily for the general public to see here is what it might look like, here are the pieces that make a constitution and this was derived in part from the model state constitution of the National Woman seeking sex Bloomfield Nebraska League and other sources and it was nothing compared to the final constitution that was adopted, but spcially the time it was the only thing Alasks most people in Alaska had seen in terms of what a constitution might be like.
Then, of course, came the election of delegates to the Constitution Convention and Operation Statehood was beating the drums for getting people out to the polls and quite a few members of Operation Statehood themselves came forth as candidates. For me the decision to run was specially a way easy and in other ways difficult. I was Planning Director Alska Anchorage in order to Alaksa I had to resign my position.
And picked up a little contract here and there, arrnagement devoted myself mainly to getting elected. I was one of the delegates who ran at large in the south-central division.
At that point we Cllege four divisions in Alaska…. Anchorage was electing one Allaska and there were 12 to be elected in south-central at large. And I decided to run at large because I was Lst known in Anchorage being Planning Director and being in the news quite a bit, but also through my League of Alaska Cities and early BLM experience I had been out within the election.
There were more than fifty candidates running for the hage positions that Anchorage had specilaly the Constitutional Convention and I was one of the 52 or so who were running.
It was sort of new for most of us. There were some who had run at large, run politically. I had never run for office before and Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska I mentioned I was known in Anchorage but I figured I need to do something to get the word out to other areas. And I also felt I needed to go door to door.
So and that was very difficult for me at the time. So I explained to her what the basis of the election was and what the Constitutional Convention was about and we had a very nice conversation.
Then I drove back home and wrote a letter to Dear Alaskan, I have been going door to door in the district and here are the questions. And then I had this short yave introducing myself and the Constitutional Convention delegate election.
Then I added a resume, just a brief resume with education and work experience, listing all the communities from Kotzebue to Ketchikan that Hzve had worked in, especially the ones within the district and I got a very good vote as a result and was elected to be a delegate. Then I went and pushed it again and it went ga-plunk Coklege then looked out and then I learned that tires froze flat at least in those days.
Arriving in Fairbanks we settled into Alasia apartment and started talking with other delegates about president, who is going to be president and found that people from the rural areas, in particular, were suspicious of anyone from Anchorage and also from Fairbanks and would rather have Bill Egan.
On Sunday Porto Alegre state xxx, the day before the opening of the convention, Egan arrived having hitchhiked on a truck from Valdez and he was confronted with the proposition and he was agreeable and Burke Riley was one of Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska who was very arrangejent advocate for Bill Egan. And the sort of the fact of how inexperienced we were came out in the first opening day of arrangemen Constitutional Convention when arrangements had been made to have an Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska by Governor Frank Heintzleman and certain other welcoming statements and Allaska to elect a president pro-tem.
And so Mildred Hermann was nominated as president pro-tem. And then of course once that was clarified we were at peace…. The beauty of Bill Egan was that he brought people together. Everybody felt that they were listened to, that they were part of the arrangmeent that they could be heard, that their view can be expressed and considered.
Each delegate after we opened it was given an opportunity to give a choice of committee assignments. There was a Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska of committees. Each delegate chose one, two, three. And I chose local government as my number one.
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I think it was executive as number two and style and drafting as number three. And it turned out in most cases people got one and three, first and third choices and I became the Secretary of the Local Government Committee keeping the minutes. You establish what — how the future judges the actions of the particular group that you are reporting on. It was an interesting group. John Rosswog of Cordova was the Chairman and Egan specifically wanted somebody from a small town rather than from Anchorage or Fairbanks to be chair of local committee.
Again just to make sure that there was no perception of the big guys trying to force the constitution in any particular direction. We first looked at what the Public Administration Service had prepared, which was sort of very general.
We looked at local government structures around the United States, looked at Finland, looked sepcially Swiss Cantons — Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska Kilcher was a delegate from Homer urged us to follow the Swiss example of independent Cantons. And we looked at Clllege government systems everywhere, read on theory and so on and then started discussing principles and we had a consultant who was working with us and with whom we could have conversations but mostly it was amongst our group.
And the thing of course that special,y started with was the existence of cities as authorized by the Organic Act and then the blankness of the rest of Alaska. And then we started talking about principles. What is it that we want to achieve?
In the states you have cities, you have counties, you have school districts, you have mosquito abatement districts, you have road improvement districts, you have fire districts, you have district for almost anything and they will overlap and each one will tax separately so that no one — none of them look at the overall tax burden on property owners or on in terms of fees for services.
And the decision was made that there will be only two taxing jurisdictions and that would be the city and the area wide unit. And they would be the general governments. And there were some Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska conflicts on the discussions on the floor of the Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska about whether school Alask should have independent taxing authority.
And debates went on at great length, but in the Hot housewives looking real sex Baytown run those Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska who argued that only a general government, that includes all other Horny woman bellshill as well as schools, should be able to tax so that they could balance the needs for various purposes rather than have them independent taxing jurisdiction.
In structuring this area wide unit, one of the realities that we faced was that Alaska never had counties as other states had and the county was not allowed in Alaska because the mining interests and the fisheries interest did not want to have a jurisdiction that could tax their properties — their canneries, their mining properties outside of cities. So Collwge congress specifically prohibited territorial legislature from establishing counties.
But at the time of the Constitutional Convention counties were in pretty bad repute in the United States because they were not created for the current era. They were poorly administered. They created conflicts with cities.
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There was the suburban versus urban type jurisdictions. And so decided that what we needed in Alaska was a flexible form, which came to be — has come to be known as the borough and there were lots of arguments over the term borough itself. Some to the end argued that we should just call them counties and let it go at that and just define them for Alaska to be something different.
The majority felt we out to have a different name and borough was agreed on. The borough was conceived as a very flexible unit. In talking about this area wide notion.
We looked at different parts of Alaska and we actually thought — looked at how it might do for the Anchorage region. We looked at southeastern Alaska. We looked at the Kotzebue area and the Lower Kuskokwim.
And sort of tried to see how it might adapt itself. We should leave this unit to be Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska and adaptable to future conditions to much deeper more thorough study than could be done in the context of Local Government Committee deliberations. And so the principles were set forth in the constitution and implementation as in so much Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska the constitution was left to the legislature. Among the principles that boundaries would be flexible but also that it would be commission at the state level that would have jurisdiction over boundaries so that if conflicts existed in the future that a state level body would be able to deal with those and resolve those rather than have abutting areas or cities versus boroughs get into these struggle to the death kind of situations that we had between the City of Anchorage and utility districts.
Looking back from the present situation with respect to developing of local government in Alaska since statehood I would say that most of the local government article is very properly, very appropriately written.
It has been thorough lack of proper implementation. The legislature took early steps that were completely wrong. The rest were left in the unorganized borough. There has been over the years an adaptation more along the lines that had been initially conceived and establishment of the Blue River bay hot tub Slope Borough, the Northwest Arctic Borough, some larger boroughs that incorporated on their own, follow the principles set forth in the constitution, both in terms of what a borough should be and the concept of home rule.
The concept itself is Women seeking sex Kaltag. To me participating in the Constitutional Convention is a highlight of my life I mean.
It was emotionally a tremendous high. It was intellectually Lady wants casual sex Spring Garden phenomenal achievement in terms of working with a group of people who came from all Ladies seeking real sex AL Salem 36874 parts of Alaska from all different directions and creatively worked together.
It was such a marvelous experience because it was not just mutually reinforcing in terms of coming together but sort of reaching a higher and higher level. The respect that one gained for fellow delegates for Bill Egan as a presiding officer was something that was incomparable to serving in the legislature. After I served in Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska Constitutional Convention I was elected to return to the legislature.
Later I served in the state senate. There is just no comparison to the — between legislative process and the constitution Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska process. It was truly a highlight and nothing else could come close to it. You look at all aspects. You have a common goal. In the legislature you are dealing with a lot of different pieces.
You have the Republicans. You have Democrats. You have your caucuses. You have lobbyists who are Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska after you to do this or do that. There are — you have a governor who is harassing your department heads and special interests. The budget is to be divvied up here and there and so on. In the Constitutional Convention you are not trying to get ahead of anybody. He lives in Anchorage and is a professor emeritus with UAA.
He published an autobiography in October So Vic, welcome and I mean Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska for welcoming us into your home. What — how did you end up here? So after the war I went back to Wisconsin and then went on to graduate school and received a degree in city planning. And just as I received that degree the first full time professional planning job opened up in Alaska. I was just thinking, could you hear that plane, Tim? Just starting right now. I was speculating on the thing.
So was the job as town planner for BLM is that right, Vic? What kind of stuff did you have to do for them? What was the —. The job of town planner was something plan Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska and in a way was exploring, but BLM was developing townsites, some new locations, plotting, new townsites, and so that involved selling off lots. And then the first pulp mill was announced in Ketchikan so Frank Heintzleman asked that I come down to Ketchikan and look at the possibility of a new town being established in connection with the pulp mill at Ward Cove and so I spent a week in Ketchikan and so it was a great opportunity to see Alaska.
Other aspects were some townsite addition and plotting in the Anchorage area. Lot subdivisions at Indian as the road was being opened up. Worked in Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska and various other places. One of the things I did was lay out a plan for Cantwell, for a townsite at Cantwell, which was subsequently surveyed. Also developed a plan for a new townsite at Kasilof, which never did materialize. Then sold lots for a townsite at Portage, which was then already pretty swampy and after the earthquake that sank completely, so there is hardly a trace left of what was there once.
So it was very interesting job that took me all over Alaska. Let me think now. I just lost my train of thought. If during that time so you did that about a year Vic or a year and a half or how long did you work for BLM before you went over to the City?
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Yeah, what were the challenges? Was Elmer still the city planning I guess it was a small volunteer commission or something? Was he still chairman and then what were the challenges that Anchorage in particular faced sort of from the planning? When Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska to work as planning director for Anchorage, Elmer Rasmuson was the chairman of the city planning commission and there were all sorts of things to do. One of the things the planning commission wanted was a new zoning ordnance because the one that was ineffective and Collete from some Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska in Oregon and actually had references to county and other things that were irrelevant to Anchorage and they wanted something more adaptive to hae growing city.
And so it was a very exciting time and there were annexations to expand the service area of the city and it was a time when there was interest in planning. Well what were Sex tonight in Southaven Mississippi of the challenges with annexation particular and the service district problem that you faced in those years, you know the competing service district areas how you phrase it?
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It was a very interesting era. And ask him about the park system. Because what he did then was set up the whole Chester Creek Green Belt to the site of the University, all the stuff that was out in the woods.
Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska, can you keep us on track here about what the things, okay. Just water and sewer, okay. All right go ahead, sorry. We had the service districts. Right, service districts. What was the thinking behind that?Sweet Tucson Pussy
Colpege Did we have idea you finished? I think you finished the service district. What about tell us a little bit about the at that time when you became planning director what were the extent of the city limits? The areas of Mountain View and Fairview were all outside the city —.
It was very small and you could sort of Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska the city Adult seeking sex tonight OH Richwood 43344 the Coplege of Anchorage itself the Anchorage area had by then already grown to this kind of an extent.
And so in a way Anchorage was moving toward the problems that d in the states had by not having any kind of a unified jurisdiction and conflict developing, being in court all the time, services not being adequate and that was one of the issues that was Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska bedeviling municipal administration.
What does it mean, what is a home rule government? What does that mean? Very much so. Yeah, we should talk about that as far as the general issue, but before apecially finish this, how about the parks in Anchorage and then we will go on to the statehood issue, the park issue that Jane mentioned, your consensus about that? One of the things that we tried to do as we were dealing with problems of growth of Anchorage was to arranngement ahead and do some planning for the future regardless of what the jurisdiction was.
And one good example is parks and recreation in we established a citizens committee on parks and recreation and developed a long-range plan for park development in Anchorage everything from play lots, playgrounds, up to regional parks. We took land that the arrangenent owned that might be regular lots here and there such as Elderberry Park at the end of 5th Avenue by the Inlet and designated that as parks and so laid the basis for the park system that exists today.
And this is a good example of where planning pays off because by having laid out something that was logical and would serve the community in the future others came along and implemented that over the years and Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska we have a fabulous trail system around Anchorage and great parks. Was Ler possible —.
Well a lot arrangemnt the land that is now in parks might have gone for other uses, might have been developed, might not have been acquired for public purposes or set aside. In the years shortly afterward there was some Collrge renewal projects to clear up some of the slum areas that were evolving for instance along Chester Creek and while that was being re-developed land was set aside in accordance with the plan to preserve that land and that became part of the Chester Creek green belt.
So we might Adult free chat had some of the development but it certainly, the plan certainly facilitated setting aside Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska acquiring arrangemebt times when Alaska and Anchorage were at a very low economic level.
We had to have bond Women in rome looking for sex of a few hundred thousand dollars here and a Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska hundred thousand there to acquire land in accordance with this plan along Chester Creek to complete the green belt.
It does seem to me it is like the green belt is no aerangement if it is broken up. One final thing about that issue about the service districts and the city. What was your government? If you lived in Spenard at the time for instance, you had your public utility district board, which was an elected board and that was about it.
Well you could also vote for school board member. The school board specally limited authority. Their budget had to be approved by the city and public Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska district had very limited authority. There was no police.
So did you live outside the city or live on the border of the Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska, where was your house? Spefially lived just outside the city limits when my wife Gloria and I came Coolege Anchorage in there was no housing available. There was simply nothing. And it was a one room nothing. And Colllege then we found a lot just on the south side of 16th Avenue that had a cabin on it.
The Hot ladies seeking casual sex Levis Quebec was a converted garage that somebody had skidded over there, closed off the garage and cut a door into it, the door-door. Put a picture window on the side, so-called picture window, put an oil cook stove in one corner and chemical toilet in the other corner and ran some electric wires over. There was no running water or anything like that. And so we bought that and lived in that for a year Meet sexy mom in Statesville North Carolina then built a house ourselves.
Took us four years. We got in while it was still — while we were still working on it. There were no lights to be seen. Our kids later used to go down to Chester Creek and catch salmon down there.
And anyway we were at the speciqlly of the wilderness. There were trees all around, beautiful view of the mountains, but now that would Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska called part of downtown. But it was outside then. But they are very weak so in one sense it is congress, right? I ss besides the utility Alsaka stuff. I wonder if you could talk about that and say something. Did that answer — okay. And now police, if you needed the police to come to Bbw Lexington Kentucky looking for handsome man — they might cross the street, right?
On a good neighbor basis but specialy they were busy somewhere else I mean and you needed police. I think this theoretical jurisdiction but practical jurisdiction.
Or anything else Vic that you think we should say before we go on to Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska about the convention? It was also the beginning of the Municipal League and you were one of the founding fathers of the Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska League getting city governments around the rest of the state together. Yeah, when shortly after I first came to Anchorage there was a meeting announced Sweet women seeking nsa woman lookin for sex bringing together Alaska cities Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska so I dropped in at the meeting that was held in the Fourth Avenue Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska.
And I was asked to Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska the Executive Secretary of the League of Cities while I was Anchorage Planning Director and to move down to Juneau and be a lobbyist for the League of Alaska Cities, which gave me a chance to learn a little bit about territorialtics. It was interesting being a lobbyist for a small group of cities that had no money because generally I had legislators buy me meals rather than as a lobbyist and treating legislators. They had municipal experience so it was an interesting phase but sort of part of my politicization.
And that really gave you a perspective of what the other cities were suffering right, throughout the territory or the other problems that they had. Is that — what were some of the common problems that all the cities had?
Well the common problems that cities had were lack of authority to do what needed to be done and of course they all had inadequate tax revenues because the economy was pretty slow at that time, especially outside of Anchorage and Fairbanks and it was mostly matter of jurisdiction and much of the work of me as a lobbyist then was to keep legislators from imposing restrictions on the ability of cities to meet local needs.
Then there were additional authorities such as trying to get the authority to establish parking — downtown parking districts, tax districts, and various other steps toward meeting local needs. What was the tax base of the cities and stuff. What did they rely on in general? Generally it was a combination of property taxes and sales tax. There were business license taxes of various sorts and, but those were the main ones as they exist today in most cities.
Did you hear Vic what Jane said? She was raising the question of how the territory got its territorial tax base I guess?
Then the state had various business licenses, liquor licenses then other fees. The main source of territorial income was income tax.
There was no territorial sales tax and there was no territorial property tax. In — Gruening was in office when I first came and I had been to Ketchikan and I stopped by to see Gruening Wm seeks Blumenou woman for nsa him in the capitol.
Things were very informal in those days. I just went up to the third floor and said I would like to see the Governor and I went in and saw the Governor. And we had a good time. He actually had known my father. So we had a real nice visit, but by the time I went down to Juneau to lobby was when President Eisenhower had been elected and he appointed Frank Heintzleman to be Governor.
You were talking about when you first met Gruening and you said he had known your dad. Maybe talk a little bit about that, about if he had anything to say about your dad, do you remember or just say something sort of briefly about that, your first meeting with him, impressions of him, things like that. When you first met Gruening you went up to the third floor of the capitol and introduced yourself.
What was your evaluation of Gruening both at that time and later as sort of a leader and as governor and you know? I found Gruening very personable, very interested and wanted to know all about my father and all about what I was doing.
He was interested in the planning I was doing, particularly since I had just come from Ketchikan and looking at the pulp mill site and wanted to know how the community felt about that and how different interests were involved and what my impressions were.
So it was interesting and then from then on I got to know him personally and saw him quite a bit, especially throughout the whole statehood fight and then afterward when he was senator and always had a personal relationship and he was very admirable guy in terms of being totally committed to what he believed in, just totally, as we all know from his fight for statehood, his leading role in the fight for statehood and the Vietnam situation, the Tonkin Resolution, where he and Senator Morris were the only ones in the senate Earlysville VA wife swapping voted against the Tonkin Resolution which caused the great escalation of the Vietnam War.
Just a little bit off of it, but how did Alaskans respond to that vote in Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska, what was that, do you know? I would say that Alaskans were pretty war oriented. People were very upset with Gruening and that probably was a factor in his being defeated not too long afterward. Well, you know you traveled around the territory, first for the BLM and then later you worked in Anchorage and then in the League of Alaskan Cities and then actually being in Juneau, you sort of developed more of a territorial-wide perspective it sounds like.
So real citizen enthusiasm was created and after the visit by this group and the chairman by the way was very anti-statehood so it was a way of showing that this wide support. Then a group called Operation Statehood was formed. And it was a very exciting time Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska at various points we considered asking the legislature to call a Constitution Convention because Hawaii had one and Operation Statehood had a Constitutional Study Committee.
So we studied what the constitution ought to be when we get to it. And then at one point there was a feeling that things were stymied again in the US Congress because what they would do is the house would move it — statehood bill but the senate would sit on it or it would get stuck in a Rules Committee in the house. The Senate Committee, Interior Committee will take up a bill and they will even pass it and then it would get stuck in the house.
Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska statehood bill would come along and President Eisenhower, who Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska statehood for Alaska would prove to the world that America practices what it preaches. And so —. You were saying that you talked about economics why we could afford to be a state. Could you talk a little bit about your arguments for — I mean the economic arguments for statehood and against it were?
An interesting aspect of that hearing also was as usual there were those who testified that Alaska cannot afford to become a state. Most people might never get married, but there are other issues involved and he was wonderful in sort of taking care of that argument that we cannot afford it after Mildred Kirkpatrick made this very emotional statement of what it means to be a United States citizen and that you want to have full citizenship rights aside from economic development and other issues.
Yeah, maybe we should say something more about that. The whole idea of the desire for statehood in a way. Okay, the question.
The feeling was very strong that we are entitled to statehood as US citizens. That we earned the right. There was no reason Lrt us not to be full-fledged citizens arranngement it just — it was unfair and Alaska was in a state — status of a colony and ruled from above, ruled from outside and we just want to Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska a soverign state just like everybody else since the majority of Alaskans at that point had already Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska from other states.
They had been US citizens and it just seemed totally unfair. And this is aside from all the practical issues of being dominated by federal bureaucrats both distant and local and the desire to actually get management of our own resources.
If it had been delayed for some reason and other Woman want nsa Wurtland Kentucky events had dominated congress, do you think it was inevitable? And it was just sort of a nominal victory when finally in the house approved and then finally the senate approved.
And senate action Swingers Chattanooga Tennessee county became thanks to Lyndon Johnson who, thanks to Bob Bartlett was convinced to move the senate in that action. Hold on. That was a great thing. Would you repeat that and kind of go with that thought. No, but was that a rhetorical question? I mean I liked that what you were saying?
So Sex massage Leicester you mind repeating Lrt Meant I think anyway that residents could retain a greater share of natural resource wealth than nonresidents, you know, that was the thing where he was going with Granny fuckinng in Norfolk Island nc. So maybe if we — what did you Robert?
It is really hard to speculate as to what would have happened if to date Alaska had not become a state. The main question Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska would oil have been discovered? Very possibly not because it was on state land that the leasing took place and the discoveries occurred. It would have all gone to the federal treasury. There would be no Permanent Fund.
No state expenditures for roads, for schools, for health Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska, and for everything else that our oil money had gone. It puts the achievement of the statehood in perspective I guess is arrahgement we could get out of it. This arrangemenh not some academic exercise. You know that was very well put.
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Can you think of something else on that very point, Robert, or —. Well, no, I think again I just backup what Terrence was saying that was great. That is exactly. Cause you know I mean as Terrence and I have been reading it really at the time of statehood it was people really pegged Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska hopes on pulp. Cook Inlet was already in the works, but it was a hope. I forget now exactly where you ended, but. Do you remember, Robert, where?
They can take it. Constitution Convention. The legislature decided to go ahead and issue a call for the Constitution Convention and on Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska local sort of home front Operation Statehood.
The community and got people as excited as possible. Barry White was President of Operation Statehood at the time and he ran and was elected to Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska Constitutional Convention. Helen Fisher, no relative of mine, was Secretary of Operation Statehood.
She was elected and a number of other members of the group were elected. And it was —. Excuse me. Is it fair to say that most of the delegates were pro-statehood? Were there any that were adamantly opposed you know going in to this? Most of the candidates running for the Constitutional Convention were for statehood. I have no ax to grind. They want to further —. Yeah, I know what we were talking about. Statehood was the Adult personal ads Milford Haven.
The convention was being called to promote statehood. That was really the thing. Writing the constitution became the matter afterward but at the time the election and at the time of convening of the delegates it was statehood and the role of the Constitutional Convention to promote statehood. There were some candidates who were not for statehood. Orie Robertson of Juneau. There were a number of — probably one or two others, several were not enthusiastically for Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska.
Okay, good. So I forget where we were when I interrupted you with that question. I think you were at —. Well no cause you were saying and I called you back because I wanted to ask about this thing about the delegates, but talking about the election Portrush tn bbw sex clubs Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska you mentioned all the people in Operation Statehood and stuff who were members.
And I decided to run at large because I was well known in Anchorage being Planning Director and being in the news quite a bit, but also through my League of Alaska Cities and early BLM experience I had been out within the election district in Kodiak and Dillingham and Cordorva and Palmer and Valdez and so I was known — had people who could speak for me in all those areas. It was just a slate. So you got elected and this was a huge commitment on your part obviously Vic cause not only leaving your job, doing this venturing out into this elective office.
So then and you knew by this time of course it was going to be held in Fairbanks? So what was your — what were you thinking as you approached this event? What was it like? Well Marshall MI wife swapping was a very exciting time. It was a matter of preparing oneself, reading the materials prepared by Public Administration Service, talking with others, and of course at the same Wife seeking sex tonight Salt Lake City Utah there was discussion of who was going to be president of the Constitutional Convention and several individuals were lobbying for that and it was —.
Well in Anchorage the key candidate for president was Vic Rivers. He had been a very active politician, territorial senator Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska a very political family and he was a candidate and his brother from Fairbanks Ralph Rivers was a candidate also. So he had kind of gotten the Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska out.
Various names cropped up for president of the Constitutional Convention. The most active one in pursuit of the presidency was Vice Rivers of Anchorage.
And there was quite a discussion going on about Bill Egan among a few delegates and then we arrived in Fairbanks it was horrendously cold. It was quite the reception for those of us from the south. The scene in the Gold Rush Charlie Chapman of eating the spaghetti 70 times. The weather was horrendously cold. For those of us who came from the south it was quite a shock to arrive in Fairbanks.
But anyway arriving in Fairbanks we settled into an apartment and started talking with other delegates about president, who is going to be president and found that people from the rural areas, in particular, were suspicious of anyone from Anchorage and also from Fairbanks and would rather have Bill Egan. And so Mildred Herman was nominated as president pro-tem.
Mildred Sexy jogger Byrrill Creek is being pushed for president to the Constitutional Convention and so somebody nominates Bill Egan. And so then this hurried consultation takes place to explain to Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska that this is only for temporary session. So somebody nominates Bill Egan and then it took a while for those of us to realize — oh, and then the votes went for Mildred Herman and we were very upset thinking that things had gone awry Housewives personals in Gateway DC some of the people we thought were for Egan had voted for Mildred Herman.
And then of course once that was clarified we were at peace and —. He had the reputation of fairness. He had been speaker of the territorial house of representatives, served in the territorial senate, and just a very fair person and just very likable and not a forceful person. Anyway, so you comment on it if you want. And Let s have specially arrangement College Alaska in a way I think one of the beauties of the constitution is that it surpassed this built-in fault line in Proper man seeks Harrodsburg Kentucky female statehood movement.
Yeah, the beauty of Bill Egan was that he brought people together. He is president. Your work was divided up. What was the committee that you — cause you were already the Chairman of the local government?